Preparation and characterization of sulfonate sodium-containing Gemini surfactants
ZHANG Guanghua, FU Xiaolong, WANG Peng, LIU Lei, WU Guixia
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Three sulfonate sodium-containing Gemini surfactants, 6,6'-(propane-1,3-diylbis(oxy)) bis(3-nonenzenesulfonate sodium) (9B-3-9B), 6, 6'-(butane-1, 4-diylbis(oxy)) bis(3-nonylbenzenesulfonic sodium) (9B-4-9B) and 6, 6'-(pentane-1, 5-diylbis(oxy)) bis(3-nonylbenzenesulfonate sodium) (9B-5-9B), were synthesized through two-step reaction using nonylphenol (NP), 1, 3-dibromopropane, 1, 4-dibromobutane, 1, 5-dibromopentane and chloro sulfonic acid as main starting materials. The influence of reaction temperature and time on the yields of 9B-m-9B was studied. The structures of 9B-m-9B were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR and elemental analysis, and their abilities to lower water surface tension were also evaluated by surface tension measurement. The yields were 59.94%, 65.27% and 53.91% for 9B-3-9B, 9B-4-9B and 9B-5-9B, respectively, when the reaction condition was at 0℃ for 6 h. Three synthesized surfactants 9B-m-9B (m=3, 4, 5) showed surface properties superior to conventional monomeric surfactant sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), and their critical micelle concentrations (CMC) were 0.14, 0.11 and 0.12 mmol·L-1, gCMC were 29.43, 29.26 and 28.22 mN·m-1 for 9B-m-9B(m=3, 4, 5), respectively.