CIESC Journal ›› 2019, Vol. 70 ›› Issue (5): 1682-1692.doi: 10.11949/j.issn.0438-1157.20190016

• Fluid dynamics and transport phenomena • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Numerical investigation of bubbling fluidized bed with binary particle mixture using EMMS mesoscale drag model

TONG Ying1,2,AHMAD Nouman1,LU Bona1,2,3(),WANG Wei1,2   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
    2. Sino-Danish College, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Dalian 116023, Liaoning, China
  • Received:2019-01-07 Revised:2019-02-22 Online:2019-05-05 Published:2019-05-10
  • Contact: LU Bona


Gas-solid bubbling fluidized beds have various industrial applications. The particles involved in practical applications usually display polydisperse characteristics (having different diameter or densities), resulting in segregation phenomena and consequently influencing flow hydrodynamics and reaction performance. Particle separation and mixing are inseparable from bubble motion, where interphase drag plays a key role. Recently, Ahmad et al. proposed a bubble-based mesoscale drag considering the effect of bidisperse features which is able to predict the bed expansion of binary bubbling fluidized beds. In this study, in order to investigate the applicability of the new drag model, two bubbling fluidized beds with different binary particle mixtures are simulated using the combination of the new drag model and the continuum model. Then, the bubble motion and axial profiles of jetsam volume ratio under two different fluidization states are mainly analyzed. It is found that the new drag model can predict well the particle segregation and mixing behaviors when the binary particles are fluidized completely. However, when the binary particles are fluidized at the transition state, the new drag model shows poor predictions, and the solid-solid drag plays a notable role in improving the prediction.

Key words: binary particle mixture, fluidized bed, mesocale, drag, CFD, EMMS

CLC Number: 

  • TQ 021.1

Table 1

Material properties used in two systems of binary particle mixtures"



(silica sand)


(glass bead)


(silica gel)

系统1 √ (浮料) √ (沉料)
系统2 √ (沉料) √ (浮料)
Sauter平均粒径/μm 125 500 375
球形度 1 1 1
密度/(kg·m-3) 2600 2540 600
Geldart分类 B B A-B
终端速度/(m·s-1) 0.80 4.10 1.25
最小流态化速度/(m·s-1) 0.022 0.23 0.032


Schematic diagram of simulated gas-solid fluidized beds (unit: m)"

Table 2

Operating conditions for two systems of binary particle mixtures"

操作参数 系统1 系统2
颗粒堆料量/kg 2.8 2.85
沉料的初始体积比 X 20 0.5 0.2
初始堆料高度/m 0.135 0.4
表观气速/(m·s-1) 0.07,0.09 0.032,0.152

Table 3

Simulation settings"

Parameter Specification
transient formulation second-order implicit
pressure-velocity coupling phase coupled SIMPLE
gradient discretization green-Gauss cell based
momentum discretization second-order upwind
volume fraction discretization quick
granular temperature algebraic
granular viscosity Syamlal-O’Brien
granular bulk viscosity Lun-et-al
frictional viscosity Schaeffer
angle of internal friction 30
frictional pressure based-ktgf
frictional modulus derived
friction packing limit 0.5
solid pressure Lun-et-al
radial distribution Ma-Ahmadi
elasticity modulus derived

gas-solid drag

binary EMMS-bubbling or Gidaspow


solid-solid interaction Syamlal-O’Brien symmetric model
packing limit 0.62
restitution coefficient 0.9
physical time step 0.0001 s

Table 4

Average gas volume fraction and X 2 at height of 0.8 under three grid resolutions"

网格尺寸 全床平均气含率 H=0.8对应的X 2
5 mm ×5 mm 0.8063 0.4460
3 mm ×3 mm 0.8077 0.4572
2 mm ×2 mm 0.8081 0.4610


Evolution of distribution of gas holdup for system 1 (U g=0.09 m·s-1)"


Distribution of gas holdup for systems 1 and 2 when reaching quasi-steady state using both gas-solid drag models"


Evolution of distribution of solid volume fraction for system 1 (U g=0.09 m·s-1)"


Axial profiles of volume ratio of jetsam fluidized completely"


Axial profiles of volume ratio of jetsam fluidized at transition state"


Axial profiles of volume ratio of jetsam (system 1: U g=0.07 m·s-1)"


Comparison of axial profiles of volume ratio of jetsam using different gas-solid drag models(system 1: U g=0.07 m·s-1, K=0.005)"


Axial profiles of volume ratio of jetsam (system 2: U g=0.032 m·s-1)"

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