CIESC Journal ›› 2019, Vol. 70 ›› Issue (3): 1188-1197.doi: 10.11949/j.issn.0438-1157.20180895

• Material science and engineering, nanotechnology • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Preparation and heat transfer characteristics of GO/paraffin composite phase change emulsions

Xiaoshi LIU(),Deqiu ZOU(),Ruijun HE,Xianfeng MA   

  1. Faculty of Maritime and Transportation,Ningbo University,Ningbo 315211,Zhejiang,China
  • Received:2018-08-03 Revised:2018-11-10 Online:2019-03-05 Published:2019-04-03
  • Contact: Deqiu ZOU;


To improve the heat transfer performance of paraffin phase change emulsion, GO/paraffin composite phase change emulsion was prepared by adding graphene oxide (GO) and its properties were characterized. The flow resistance and convection heat transfer test rig were set up, and the flow resistance characteristics and convective heat transfer characteristics of paraffin phase change emulsion and GO/paraffin composite phase change emulsion were comparatively studied. The results show that the composite phase change emulsion shows good stability due to the hydrophilicity of GO. When the mass fraction of GO is 0.01%, 0.02%, and 0.03%, the thermal conductivity of the composite phase change emulsion increases by 20.01%, 30.50%, and 35.18%, respectively. The flow resistance of the GO/paraffin composite phase change emulsion increases slightly compared to that of paraffin phase change emulsion. The straight pipe section increased by 6.70%, and the 90°elbow section increased by 13.20%.The convective heat transfer coefficient increases with the increase of GO concentration. The maximum convective heat transfer coefficient was increased by 43.90% at the GO addition amount of 0.03%.

Key words: phase change, emulsions, nanoparticles, heat transfer, graphene oxide

CLC Number: 

  • TB 34


SEM image of graphene oxide"


Appearance of GO/paraffin composite phase change emulsion"


Stability of GO/paraffin composite phase change emulsion"


Schematic diagram of flow experimental set-up"


Schematic diagram of straight tube,90° elbow and tube cross section (unit: mm)"


Experimental system of convective heat transfer test"

Fig. 7

Comparison between measured results and calculated values of water"

Table 1

Experimental uncertainties"



Viscosity of phase change emulsion varied with temperature"


Pressure drop of GO/paraffin PCE in straight tube"


Pressure drop of GO/paraffin PCE in 90°elbow"

Table 2

Thermal conductivity of GO/paraffin PCE with different mass fractions"

Test sampleThermal conductivity/(W/(m·K))


Variation of convective heat transfer coefficient of GO/paraffin PCE with different mass fractions"


Increasing rate of convective heat transfer coefficient of different concentrations of GO / paraffin PEM"

1 黄莉.石蜡/水相变乳液的制备与性能[J]. 化工学报, 2018, 69(4): 1749-1757.
HuangL.Preparation and properties of paraffin/water phase change emulsion[J]. CIESC Journal, 2018, 69(4): 1749-1757.
2 刘东, 何蔚然, 钟小龙, 等.潜热型功能热流体在微小管道内的换热特性[J]. 化工进展, 2016, 35(10): 3042-3048.
LiuD, HeW R, ZhongX L, et al.The heat transfer characteristics of latent functionally thermal fluid in micro tube[J]. Chemical Industry and Engineering Progress, 2016, 35(10): 3042-3048.
3 ZouD, FengZ, XiaoR, et al.Preparation and flow characteristic of a novel phase change fluid for latent heat transfer[J]. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, 2010, 94(12): 2292-2297.
4 KumaresanV, ChandrasekaranP, NandaM, et al.Role of PCM based nanofluids for energy efficient cool thermal storage system[J]. International Journal of Refrigeration, 2013, 36(6): 1641-1647.
5 LiuJ, XuC, ChenL L, et al.Preparation and photo-thermal conversion performance of modified graphene/ionic liquid nanofluids with excellent dispersion stability[J]. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, 2017, 170: 219-232.
6 GhorbaniH R.Preparation of copper nanofluids using an appropriate technique[J]. Oriental Journal of Chemistry, 2014, 30(4): 2025-2028.
7 LiD, HongB, FangW, et al.Preparation of well-dispersed silver nanoparticles for oil-based nanofluids[J]. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 2010, 49(4): 1697-1702.
8 LiuM S, LinC C, TsaiC Y, et al.Enhancement of thermal conductivity with Cu for nanofluids using chemical reduction method[J]. International Journal of Heat & Mass Transfer, 2006, 49(17): 3028-3033.
9 MadheshD, KalaiselvamS.Experimental study on the heat transfer and flow properties of Ag-ethylene glycol nanofluid as a coolant[J]. Heat & Mass Transfer, 2014, 50(11): 1597-1607.
10 DasS K, PutraN, ThiesenP, et al.Temperature dependence of thermal conductivity enhancement for nanofluids[J]. Journal of Heat Transfer, 2003, 125(4): 567.
11 常强.碳纳米管纳米流体传热特性实验研究[D]. 青岛: 青岛科技大学, 2015.
ChangQ.Experimental study on the thermal conductivity of carbon nanotubes nanofluids[J]. Qingdao: Qingdao University of Science and Technology, 2015.
12 向军,李菊香.纳米悬浮液的有效导热系数[J]. 低温与超导, 2009, 37(1): 59-62.
XiangJ, LiJ X.Effective thermal conductiv ity of nanoparticles suspension[J]. Cryo. & Supercond, 2009, 37(1): 59-62.
13 MorimotoT, TogashiK, KumanoH, et al.Thermophysical properties of phase change emulsions prepared by D-phase emulsification[J]. Energy Conversion & Management, 2016, 122: 215-222.
14 ZhangX, WuJ Y, NiuJ.PCM-in-water emulsion for solar thermal applications: the effects of emulsifiers and emulsification conditions on thermal performance, stability and rheology characteristics[J]. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, 2016, 147: 211-224.
15 HoC J, GaoJ Y.Preparation and thermophysical properties of nanoparticle-in-paraffin emulsion as phase change material [J]. International Communications in Heat & Mass Transfer, 2009, 36(5): 467-470.
16 ZhengY F, QiuZ Z, ChenJ.The investigation of phase change emulsion (PCE): fabrication, thermal conductivity and utilization of nanoparticles[J]. Advanced Materials Research, 2014, 860-863: 862-866.
17 邹得球, 肖睿, 何世辉, 等.基于纳米粒子/相变石蜡乳状液的研究[J]. 材料导报, 2009, 23(15): 103-107.
ZouD Q, XiaoR, HeS H, et al.Research based on nanoparticles/ phase change wax emulsion[J]. Materials Review, 2009, 23(15): 103-107.
18 杨志涛, 张军强, 宗冬冬, 等.SiO2改性石墨烯–石蜡复合相变乳液的制备及热性能[J]. 新能源进展, 2017, 5(2): 110-116.
YangZ T, ZhangJ Q, ZongD D, et al.Preparation and thermal properties of SiO2 modified graphene-paraffin composite phase change emulsions[J]. Advances in New and Renewable Energy, 2017, 5(2): 110-116.
19 毛凌波, 梁志彬, 林敬堂, 等.纳米材料增强石蜡相变乳状液在太阳能中的应用[J]. 太阳能学报, 2016, 37(1): 142-146.
MaoL B, LiangZ B, LinJ T, et al.Nanomaterials enhanced phase change wax emulisions used in the solar energy[J]. Acta Energiae Solaris Sinica, 2016, 37(1): 142-146.
20 WangF, ZhangC, LiuJ, et al.Highly stable graphite nanoparticle-dispersed phase change emulsions with little supercooling and high thermal conductivity for cold energy storage[J]. Applied Energy, 2017, 188: 97-106.
21 WangF, LiuJ, FangX, et al.Graphite nanoparticles-dispersed paraffin/water emulsion with enhanced thermal-physical property and photo-thermal performance[J]. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, 2016, 147: 101-107.
22 YuW, XieH, BaoD.Enhanced thermal conductivities of nanofluids containing graphene oxide nanosheets[J]. Nanotechnology, 2010, 21(5): 055705.
23 GuptaS S, SivaV M, KrishnanS, et al.Thermal conductivity enhancement of nanofluids containing graphene nanosheets[J]. Journal of Applied Physics, 2011, 110(8): 902.
24 YuW, XieH, ChenW.Experimental investigation on thermal conductivity of nanofluids containing graphene oxide nanosheets[J]. Journal of Applied Physics, 2010, 107(9): 666.
25 KausarA.Enhanced electrical and thermal conductivity of modified poly(acrylonitrile-co-butadiene)-based nanofluid containing functional carbon black-graphene oxide[J]. Fullerene Science & Technology, 2016, 24(4): 278-285.
26 RanjbarzadehR, KarimipourA, AfrandM, et al.Empirical analysis of heat transfer and friction factor of water/graphene oxide nanofluid flow in turbulent regime through an isothermal pipe[J]. Applied Thermal Engineering, 2017, 126: 538-547.
27 ÖzerinçS, KakaçS, YaziciogluA G.Enhanced thermal conductivity of nanofluids: a state-of-the-art review[J]. Microfluidics & Nanofluidics, 2010, 8(2): 145-170.
28 KibriaM A, AnisurM R, MahfuzM H, et al.A review on thermophysical properties of nanoparticle dispersed phase change materials[J]. Energy Conversion & Management, 2015, 95: 69-89.
29 刘彦丰, 高正阳, 梁秀俊.传热学[M]. 北京:中国电力出版社, 2015: 54.
LiuY F, GaoZ Y, LiangX J, et al.Heat Transfer[M]. Beijing: China Electric Power Press, 2015: 54.
30 MoffatR J.Describing the uncertainties in experimental results[J]. Experimental Thermal & Fluid Science, 1988, 1(1): 3-17.
31 MaZ W, ZhangP, WangR Z, et al.Forced flow and convective melting heat transfer of clathrate hydrate slurry in tubes[J]. International Journal of Heat & Mass Transfer, 2010, 53(19): 3745-3757.
32 MaZ W, ZhangP.Pressure drops and loss coefficients of a phase change material slurry in pipe fittings[J]. International Journal of Refrigeration, 2012, 35(4): 992-1002.
33 张飞龙, 王莉, 俞树荣, 等.氧化石墨烯及其导热纳米流体的制备与性能[J]. 功能材料, 2015, 46(16): 16138-16141.
ZhangL F, WangL, YuS R, et al.Preparation and properties of graphene oxide and its thermally conductive nanofluid[J].Journal of Functional Materials, 2015, 46(16): 16138-16141.
34 FotukianS M, EsfahanyM N.Experimental study of turbulent convective heat transfer and pressure drop of dilute CuO/water nanofluid inside a circular tube[J]. International Communications in Heat & Mass Transfer, 2010, 37(2): 214-219.
[1] Siyu SHAN, Hongbo TAN. Study on heat and mass transfer characteristics outside flat tube for evaporative condensers [J]. CIESC Journal, 2019, 70(S1): 69-78.
[2] Zhe LI, Wenlong WANG, Meng ZHANG, Jing SUN, Yanpeng MAO, Xiqiang ZHAO, Zhanlong SONG. Low frequency electromagnetic parameters and absorbing heat generation properties of carbon nanotubes [J]. CIESC Journal, 2019, 70(S1): 28-34.
[3] Hua CHEN, Xiuli LIU, Yaxing YANG, Liqiong ZHONG, Lei WANG, Na GAO. Numerical simulation of foam metal copper/paraffin phase change thermal storage process [J]. CIESC Journal, 2019, 70(S1): 86-92.
[4] Qiang YU, Yuanwei LU, Xiaopan ZHANG, Yuting WU. Effect of nanoparticles on thermal properties of molten salt composite heat storage materials [J]. CIESC Journal, 2019, 70(S1): 217-225.
[5] Nenglian FENG, Ruijin MA, Longke CHEN, Shikang DONG, Xiaofeng WANG, Xingyu ZHANG. Heat transfer characteristics of honeycomb liquid-cooled power battery module [J]. CIESC Journal, 2019, 70(5): 1713-1722.
[6] Yuting CHEN, Yanyan XU, Lei WANG, Shuang YE, Weiguang HUANG. Effect of evaporator heat transfer process on selection of mixture and operating condition in ORC system [J]. CIESC Journal, 2019, 70(5): 1723-1733.
[7] Shuang ZHANG, Lei ZHAO, Lin GAO, Hua LIU. Exploration on thermo-mechanical characteristics of energy piles with double-U pipes buried in parallel by means of numerical simulations [J]. CIESC Journal, 2019, 70(5): 1750-1760.
[8] Wenyu LI, Liangliang SUN, Yanping YUAN, Xiaoling CAO, Bo XIANG. Heat storage and release characteristics of solar phase change Kang and influence factors [J]. CIESC Journal, 2019, 70(5): 1761-1771.
[9] Jianguo YAN, Fengling ZHU, Pengcheng GUO, Xingqi LUO. Convective heat transfer of supercritical CO2 flowing a mini circular tube under high heat flux and low mass flux conditions [J]. CIESC Journal, 2019, 70(5): 1779-1787.
[10] Linchen ZHOU, Zhigao SUN, Ling LU, Sai WANG, Juan LI, Cuimin LI. Formation and stability of HCFC–141b hydrate in organic phase change emulsion [J]. CIESC Journal, 2019, 70(5): 1674-1681.
[11] Junlan YANG, Shuying NING. Study on boiling heat transfer characteristics of CO2/ lubricating oil mixture in mini-channel tube [J]. CIESC Journal, 2019, 70(5): 1772-1778.
[12] Yamin LIU, Lei PENG, Fengying SU, Xiangxiang WANG, Yizhen HUANG, Zaichun LIN, Xiaojing YU, Yishan PEI. Study of CO2 adsorption on amine functionalized graphene oxide porous materials [J]. CIESC Journal, 2019, 70(5): 2016-2024.
[13] Xi CHEN, Yi LIN, Shuai SHAO. Influences of inclination angle and heating power on heat transfer performance of ethane pulsating heat pipe [J]. CIESC Journal, 2019, 70(4): 1383-1389.
[14] Yucong SONG, Xiaoshu DING, Yahui YAN, Shufang WANG, Yanji WANG. Catalytic performance of graphene oxide composite metal catalyst in dimethyl carbonate synthesis [J]. CIESC Journal, 2019, 70(4): 1401-1408.
[15] Yexia CHAI, Huayan CHEN, Yue JIA, Dandan LI, Chunrui WU, Xiaolong LYU. Enhancement on steam dropwise condensation heat transfer with superhydrophobic surfaces of PVDF hollow fiber heat exchange tubes [J]. CIESC Journal, 2019, 70(4): 1331-1339.
Full text



[1] LING Lixia, ZHANG Riguang, WANG Baojun, XIE Kechang. Pyrolysis Mechanisms of Quinoline and Isoquinoline with Density Functional Theory[J]. , 2009, 17(5): 805 -813 .
[2] LEI Zhigang, LONG Aibin, JIA Meiru, LIU Xueyi. Experimental and Kinetic Study of Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO with NH3 over CuO/Al2O3/Cordierite Catalyst[J]. , 2010, 18(5): 721 -729 .
[3] SU Haifeng, LIU Huaikun, WANG Fan, LÜXiaoyan, WEN Yanxuan. Kinetics of Reductive Leaching of Low-grade Pyrolusite with Molasses Alcohol Wastewater in H2SO4[J]. , 2010, 18(5): 730 -735 .
[4] WANG Jianlin, XUE Yaoyu, YU Tao, ZHAO Liqiang. Run-to-run Optimization for Fed-batch Fermentation Process with Swarm Energy Conservation Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm[J]. , 2010, 18(5): 787 -794 .
[5] SUN Fubao, MAO Zhonggui, ZHANG Jianhua, ZHANG Hongjian, TANG Lei, ZHANG Chengming, ZHANG Jing, ZHAI Fangfang. Water-recycled Cassava Bioethanol Production Integrated with Two-stage UASB Treatment[J]. , 2010, 18(5): 837 -842 .
[6] Gao Ruichang, Song Baodong and Yuan Xiaojing( Chemical Engineering Research Center, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072). LIQUID FLOW DISTRIBUTION IN GAS - LIQUID COUNTER - CONTACTING PACKED COLUMN[J]. , 1999, 50(1): 94 -100 .
[7] Su Yaxin, Luo Zhongyang and Cen Kefa( Institute of Thermal Power Engineering , Zhejiang University , Hangzhou 310027). A STUDY ON THE FINS OF HEAT EXCHANGERS FROM OPTIMIZATION OF ENTROPY GENERATION[J]. , 1999, 50(1): 118 -124 .
[8] Luo Xiaoping(Department of Industrial Equipment and Control Engineering , South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641)Deng Xianhe and Deng Songjiu( Research Institute of Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 5106. RESEARCH ON FLOW RESISTANCE OF RING SUPPORT HEAT EXCHANGER WITH LONGITUDINAL FLUID FLOW ON SHELL SIDE[J]. , 1999, 50(1): 130 -135 .
[9] Jin Wenzheng , Gao Guangtu , Qu Yixin and Wang Wenchuan ( College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing Univercity of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029). MONTE CARLO SIMULATION OF HENRY CONSTANT OF METHANE OR BENZENE IN INFINITE DILUTE AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS[J]. , 1999, 50(2): 174 -184 .

LI Qingzhao;ZHAO Changsui;CHEN Xiaoping;WU Weifang;LI Yingjie


Combustion of pulverized coal in O2/CO2 mixtures and its pore structure development

[J]. , 2008, 59(11): 2891 -2897 .