CIESC Journal ›› 2019, Vol. 70 ›› Issue (3): 901-912.doi: 10.11949/j.issn.0438-1157.20180804

• Fluid dynamics and transport phenomena • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Behavior characteristics of bubble formation under various nozzle immersion modes

Xuan WU(),Xiaorui LI,Jun MA,Mengzhu QIN,Yahui ZHOU,Haiguang LI   

  1. 1. School of Energy and Environment, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 014010, Inner Mongolia, China
  • Received:2018-07-16 Revised:2018-12-20 Online:2019-03-05 Published:2018-12-20
  • Contact: Xuan WU


The visual experiment and three-dimensional numerical simulation of the bubble generation behavior process under three nozzle immersion modes were carried out. The impacts of nozzle immersion modes, nozzle diameters and gas flow rates on the bubble formation, the bubble detachment diameter, the bubble expansion and detachment time, and the velocity of the gas-liquid flow are analyzed. Good agreement between the experimental and numerical simulation results is obtained. The results indicate that the bubble formation process can be categorized into two modes: single bubble generation and double bubbles generation, and there exists a critical point indicating bubble detachment form. The bubble detachment diameter increases with the increase of nozzle diameter and gas flow rate under all three different nozzle immersion modes. The bubble expansion and detachment time increases with the enlargement of nozzle diameter. However, with the increase of gas flow rate, it decreases sharply at the beginning and then tends to be gentle gradually. With bottom-submerged and side-submerged nozzles, the major to minor axis ratio (C) of bubble fluctuates near the values of 0.75 and 1.1, respectively. And the bubble detaches in spherical shape. While with top-submerged nozzle, the bubble detaches in the form of ellipsoidal shape with the C value fluctuates around 1.5.

Key words: gas-liquid flow, bubble, numerical simulation, immersion mode, detachment diameter

CLC Number: 

  • TV 131.4


Schematic diagram of visual experimental system"

Table 1

Size of stainless steel flat pipe"

Pipe numberOuter diameter, Do/mmInner diameter, Di/mm


Schematic diagram of bubble size information acquisition"


Schematic diagram of physical model"

Table 2

Physical parameters of gas-liquid two-phase"

Liquid density/


Gas density/


Liquid viscosity/


Gas viscosity/


Surface tension/


Gravity acceleration/




Movement forms of bubble expansion and detachment at bottom-submerged nozzle"


Movement forms of bubble expansion and detachment at side-submerged nozzle"


Movement forms of bubble expansion and detachment at top-submerged nozzle"


Variation rule of bubble detachment diameter with gas flow rate at bottom-submerged nozzle"


Variation rule of bubble detachment diameter with gas flow rate at side-submerged nozzle"


Variation rule of bubble detachment diameter with gas flow rate at top-submerged nozzle"


Variation rule of bubble expansion and detachment time with gas flow rate at bottom-submerged nozzle"

Fig. 11

Variation rule of bubble expansion and detachment time with gas flow rate at side-submerged nozzle"


Variation rule of bubble expansion and detachment time with gas flow rate at top-submerged nozzle"


Bubble circular degree change distribution at bottom-submerged nozzle (No.4 pipe)"


Bubble circular degree change distribution at side-submerged nozzle (No.4 pipe)"


Bubble circular degree change distribution at top-submerged nozzle (No.4 pipe)"


Velocity vector diagram of gas-liquid flow in bottom-submerged nozzle model"


Variation of z direction velocity along x axis in bottom-submerged nozzle model"


Velocity vector diagram of gas-liquid flow field in side-submerged nozzle model"


Variation of x direction velocity along y axis in side-submerged nozzle model"


Velocity vector diagram of gas-liquid flow field in top-submerged nozzle model"


Variation of z direction velocity along x axis in top-submerged nozzle model"

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