CIESC Journal ›› 2019, Vol. 70 ›› Issue (1): 10-23.doi: 10.11949/j.issn.0438-1157.20180465

• Reviews and monographs • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Research progress in extraction and recovery of lithium from hard-rock ores

Hui SU1,2,3(),Zhaowu ZHU1,2(),Lina WANG1,2,Tao QI1,2()   

  1. 1. Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Beijing 100190, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
    3. School of Chemical Engineering, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 101408, China
  • Received:2018-05-03 Revised:2018-10-08 Online:2019-01-05 Published:2018-10-09
  • Contact: Zhaowu ZHU,Tao QI;;


Lithium is widely used in new types of energy materials and the applications are growing fast. Lithium hard-rock ores are the main resources for lithium production. The trend of lithium recovery from the ores is to realize cleaning and effective production, and resource comprehensive utilizations. Based on the composition and structure analysis of various kinds of lithium ores, its recovery by a variety of methods, such as, typically, acidic, alkaline, salt were reviewed. Future development for the techniques of lithium recovery from ores was also discussed. It is shown that the lithium extraction by acidic methods was usually high. However, the composition of the acidic leachate was complex, resulting in a long process of purification of lithium. It also could cause environmental pollution by off-gas when processing the ores containing fluorine. Alkali and salt based processes had good lithium selectivity, but its extraction was low and the cost was high, and large amounts of solid wastes were generated difficult to store and re-use. Some other methods have both advantages and disadvantages, such as high-temperature chlorination method which has high metal recovery and ready solid residue utilization but has high corrosiveness to the equipment. Therefore, the development of new processes for extracting lithium from ore is focused on reducing the output of waste residue and achieving comprehensive recovery of associated resources.

Key words: lithiumores, lithium extraction, precipitation, recovery, pollution, comprehensive utilization

CLC Number: 

  • TF 046

Table 1

Chemical composition of lithium minerals commonly used in industry[15,16]"

MineralsChemical formulaChemical composition of minerals/%(mass)
zinnwaliditeKLiFeAl(AlSi3) O10(F,OH)22-50.1910.10.451142.821.76.1_

Table 2

Crystal structure of lithium minerals commonly used in industry[27,29,30,31,32]"

MineralsCrystal systemShapeCrystal structureStructure description
spodumenemonoclinicchainLi ions are filled between [SiO4] tetrahedral chains and [AlO6] octahedral chains
lepidolitemonocliniclamellartwo layers of [SiO4] tetrahedron and one layer of [AlO6] octahedron form a TOT-type three-layer space configuration. Li ions are located in layers to supplement charge
zinnwaliditemonocliniclamellarsequence patterns of [SiO4] tetrahedrons and [AlO6] octahedrons. Li ions are located between layers, Li and Fe can be interchanged
petalitemonoclinicrackTO4 tetrahedrons (T=Li, Al, Si) connected at top corners forming a three-dimensional skeleton
amblygonitetriclinicrack[PO4] tetrahedron and [AlO6] octahedron are connected sequentially. Li ions are placed in layers in a six-coordinate manner

Table 3

Typical composition of solid waste for lithium recovery based on acidic method[38]/%"

SiO2CaOAl2O3Fe2O3MgOMnOSO3Loss of ignition

Table 4

Chemical composition of solid waste from spodumene processing by alkaline method[46]"



New process flow sheet for recovering K, Rb, and Cs from mother liquor obtained from lepidolite roasting treatment [66]"


Process flow sheet for preparing aluminum sulfate from precipitated solid using salt-roasting method for lepidolite treatment [73]"


Process flow sheet for recovery of Rb and Cs by carnallite formation method[59]"


Process flow sheet for preparing Li2CO3 and by-products from zinnwaldite by decomposition with hydrochloric acid[76]"


Process flow sheet for preparing Li2CO3 by direct carbonization of zinnwaldite concentrate[21]"

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LI Qingzhao;ZHAO Changsui;CHEN Xiaoping;WU Weifang;LI Yingjie


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