CIESC Journal ›› 2020, Vol. 71 ›› Issue (10): 4429-4444.doi: 10.11949/0438-1157.20200612

• Reviews and monographs • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Recent progress on cathode materials for potassium-ion batteries

Zhibo ZHANG(),Kunyao PENG,Maoning GENG,Xinyue ZHAO,Si LIU,Changbao ZHU()   

  1. College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong, China
  • Received:2020-05-19 Revised:2020-07-28 Online:2020-10-05 Published:2020-08-10
  • Contact: Changbao ZHU E-mail:zhangzhb7@mail2.sysu.edu.cn;zhuchb6@mail.sysu.edu.cn

Abstract:

Due to resource and cost advantages, as well as the similarity of working principles with lithium-ion batteries, potassium-ion batteries (PIBs) have a bright future in large-scale energy storage applications. However, the ion size of potassium is larger than that of lithium and sodium ions, which not only affects the transport in the electrode, but also tends to cause irreversible damage to electrode structure, resulting poor electrochemical performance. For PIBs, the graphite that already applied in lithium-ion batteries can be used as anode, thus the cathode materials are the key to develop the high-performance potassium ion batteries. This review summarized the progress of various types of cathode materials for PIBs, and discussed their advantages, problems and corresponding modification methods. Finally, the main challenges and perspectives are also discussed to provide the future direction of cathode materials for PIBs.

Key words: potassium-ion batteries, cathode materials, nanomaterials, composites, electrochemistry

CLC Number: 

  • TM 911

Fig.1

The comparison of Li, Na and K in Earth’s crust abundance, standard reduction potential and ions radius"

Fig.2

The different oxygen atom stacking modes in layered oxide potassium ion cathode materials[19-22]"

Fig.3

In situ XRD characterization of P2-type K0.6CoO2 during charge/discharge process[(a)—(e)][19] and the SEM images of P2-type K0.6CoO2 that made by self-templated method(f)[24]"

Fig.4

SEM images[(a)—(c)], electrochemical performance[(d),(e)] of KVOP-B, KVOP-NS and KVOP-MS[50]"

Fig.5

Schematic crystal structures of ideal PBAs (a) and PBAs with crystal water (b)[61]"

Fig.6

STEM image(a), electrochemical performance[(b),(c)][68] and structural evolution (d) of MnHCF in process of K ions storage[65]"

Fig.7

The CV curves(a), ex situ FTIR spectroscopy under different charge and discharge states [corresponding to the states in (a)] (b) and the proposed redox mechanism (c) for PTCDI-DAQ in K-ion batteries[84]"

Table 1

The performance of typical four types of cathode electrode materials for PIBs"

材料类型典型材料电压 范围/V

倍率性能

(电流密度,容量)

循环性能

(电流密度;圈数; 保持率)

文献
层状过渡金属氧化物P2-K0.6CoO21.7~4.010 mA/g,82 mA·h/g;100 mA/g,65 mA·h/g40 mA/g;300;87%[24]
P2-K0.65Fe0.5Mn0.5O21.5~4.220 mA/g,151 mA·h/g;100 mA/g,103 mA·h/g100 mA/g;350;78%[28]
P′3-K0.8CrO21.5~3.811 mA/g,91 mA·h/g;436 mA/g,52 mA·h/g218 mA/g;300;99%[39]
聚阴离子型化合物KVOPO42.0~4.60.5 C,113.1 mA·h/g;20 C,83.4 mA·h/g5 C;500;75.6%[50]
KVPO4F2.0~5.00.5 C,101.8 mA·h/g;50 C,87.6 mA·h/g0.5 C;100;84.3%[51]
K4Fe3(PO4)2(P2O7)2.1~4.10.05 C,~118 mA·h/g;5 C,~83 mA·h/g5 C;500;82%[58]
普鲁士蓝及其类似物K1.70Mn[Fe(CN)6]0.90·1.10H2O2.5~4.60.2 C,142.4 mA·h/g;2 C,~93 mA·h/g1 C;100;77%[68]
K1.69Fe[Fe(CN)6 ]0.90·4H2O2~4.510 mA/g,140 mA·h/g;100 mA/g,120 mA·h/g100 mA/g;300;60%[69]
K1.81Ni[Fe(CN)6]0.97?0.086H2O2~4.510 mA/g,57 mA·h/g;500 mA/g,13.1 mA·h/g50 mA/g;1000;87.3%[71]
有机正极材料PTCDA1.5~3.510 mA/g,131 mA·h/g;500 mA/g,73 mA·h/g50 mA/g;200;66.1%[78]
AQDS1.4~3.00.1 C,95 mA·h/g;3 C,56 mA·h/g0.1 C;100;82.4%[82]
PTCDI-DAQ1~3.815 C,202 mA·h/g;100 C,133 mA·h/g15 C;900;72.7%[84]
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