化工学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 71 ›› Issue (S1): 397-403.doi: 10.11949/0438-1157.20191098

• 能源和环境工程 • 上一篇    下一篇

充注量对小型CO2水源热泵热水器性能的影响及其最佳值的确定

王栋(),刘雅如,陈卓,寇遵丽,鲁月红   

  1. 安徽工业大学建筑工程学院,安徽 马鞍山 243002
  • 收稿日期:2019-10-07 修回日期:2019-11-06 出版日期:2020-04-25 发布日期:2020-05-22
  • 通讯作者: 王栋 E-mail:wangdong224545@163.com
  • 作者简介:王栋(1981—),男,博士,讲师,wangdong224545@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(51608001);安徽省高校自然科学研究重点项目(KJ2017A055)

Effects on performance of small water-source heat pump water heater with CO2 by refrigerant charge and determination of optimal value

Dong WANG(),Yaru LIU,Zhuo CHEN,Zunli KOU,Yuehong LU   

  1. School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Anhui University of Technology, Ma anshan 243002, Anhui, China
  • Received:2019-10-07 Revised:2019-11-06 Online:2020-04-25 Published:2020-05-22
  • Contact: Dong WANG E-mail:wangdong224545@163.com

摘要:

基于一套已有的小型CO2水源热泵热水器实验台,运用不同的理论方法对其最佳充注量进行计算,通过实验研究不同充注量对系统性能的影响,并利用实验结果对理论计算结果的准确度进行验证。研究结果表明:小型CO2水源热泵热水器存在着最佳充注量,在此充注量条件下,系统的COPheat最大,实验系统的最佳充注量为270 g。当充注量减小为最佳值的89%时(230 g),COPheat降低10.8%,增大为最佳值的111%时(300 g),COPheat降低了2.6%,即充注量不足时,COPheat对充注量的变化更为敏感。此外,充注量增加会提高系统热水的出水量,但超过最佳值后,效果不明显。实验数据法和额定工况法均适用于本文所研究的CO2水源热泵热水器系统,最大误差不超过3.7%。本研究可以为小型CO2跨临界系统最佳充注量的确定及如何维持系统高效运行提供理论指导。

关键词: 最佳充注量, CO2, 跨临界, 理论计算, 实验验证,

Abstract:

On the bases of an existing water-source heat pump water heater with CO2 as a refrigerant, the optimal charge was calculated by different theoretical methods. The changes of system performance were studied with various refrigerant charges by a series of experiments and the optimal value was used to verify the accuracy of the theoretical one. The results indicated that there existed an optimal charge in a water-source heat pump water heater with CO2 as a refrigerant where the system yielded the best COPheat and the value was 270 g in the experiment system. If the refrigerant charge was reduced to 89% (230 g), COPheat would reduce by 10.8%, while 111% (300 g) charge reduced COPheat (coefficient of heating performance) by 2.6% and it could be concluded that the performance of such system was particularly sensitive to the insufficient charge. Moreover, the hot water yield increased with the increase of refrigerant charge, but the effect was not obvious when charge exceeded the optimal value. Comparing with the experiment result, it was found that both the experimental data method and the rated operating method could be applied in the studied water-source heat pump water heater system with the maximum error of 3.7%. This study may provide theoretical guidance on how to determine optimal refrigerant charge and how to maintain efficient operation of a small CO2 transcritical system.

Key words: optimal charge, carbon dioxide, transcritical, theoretical calculation, experimental validation, enthalpy

中图分类号: 

  • TB 657.9

表1

换热器尺寸和结构"

尺寸和结构气冷器蒸发器/回热器
结构管式换热器(外管1根,内管3根)管式换热器(外管1根,内管1根)
外径/mm19(外管),6(内管)16/10(外管),10/6(内管)
壁厚/mm1(外管),1(内管)1.2/0.8(外管),0.8/0.5(内管)
长度/m4.64(外管),4.64(内管)8.4/2(外管),8.4/2(内管)

图1

CO2跨临界水源热泵热水器流程图及压焓图"

图2

热泵热水器实物图"

表2

模拟计算结果"

状态点T /℃p/MPaρ/(kg·m-3)h/(kJ·kg-1)s/(kJ·kg-1·K-1)cp/(kJ·kg-1·K-1)X
115.03.770193.638449.551.90121.51281
279.28.5175.64485.391.90121.59381
2’83.48.5170.08491.961.91971.53471
334.08.5644.7300.91.32477.06011
430.28.5723.44280.321.25734.34571
53.03.7701908.95(l)207.43(l)1.0259(l)2.6453(l)0.329
107.46(g)428.97(g)1.8282(g)2.0203(g)
63.03.7701107.46428.971.82822.02031

图3

系统制热量、COPheat及功耗随充注量的变化"

图4

热水出水量随充注量的变化"

图5

基于不同方法的最佳充注量"

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